Anatomical landmarks on panoramic radiography

ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS ON PANORAMIC RADIOGRAPHY
**Enumerate all radiolucent anatomical landmarks visible on a panoramic radiograph
  • Bony landmarks of the maxilla and surrounding structures:
  1. External auditory meatus (external acoustic meatus)
  2. Pterygomaxillary fissure
  3. Infraorbital foramen
  4. Orbit
  5. Incisive canal ( Nasopalatine canal)
  6. Incisive foramen ( Nasopalatine foramen)
  7. Nasal cavity
  8. Maxillary sinus and floor of the maxillary sinus
  •   Bony landmarks of the mandible and surrounding structures:
  1. Coronoid notch
  2. Mandibular foramen
  3. Mental foramen
  4. Mental fossa
  5. Lingual foramen
**Enumerate all radiopaque anatomical landmarks visible on a panoramic radiograph:
  • Bony landmarks of the maxilla and surrounding structures:
  1. Mastoid process
  2. Styloid process
  3. Glenoid fossa (mandibular fossa)
  4. Articular eminence (articular tubercle)
  5. Lateral pterygoid plate
  6. Maxillary tuberosity
  7. Anterior nasal spine
  8. Nasal septum
  9. Hard palate
  10. Zygoma
  11. Hamulus

  • Bony landmarks of mandible and surrounding structures:
  1. Mandibular condyle
  2. Coronoid process
  3. Lingula
  4. Genial tubercles
  5. Inferior border of mandible
  6. Mylohyoid ridge
  7. Internal oblique ridge
  8. External oblique ridge
  9. Angle of mandible
  10. Hyoid bone
  • Soft tissue images seen on panoramic radiographs:
  1. Tongue
  2. Soft palate and uvula
  3. Ear
  4.   Lip line  -areas of the teeth covered by lips appear more radiopaque