IMPORTANT ORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF METABOLIC DISORDERS

IMPORTANT ORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF METABOLIC DISORDERS

  1. DIABETES MELLITUS : Severe periodontitis with loosening of teeth, gingivitis and painful gingival, burning mouth syndrome, delayed wound healing, mucosal ulceration, acetone breath, increased risk of infection, bilateral nontended enlargement of parotids (diabetic sialedenitis), xerostomia, gingival hyperplasia, candidiasis and atrophy of tongue papillae.

  2. AMYLOIDOSIS : Macroglossia with smooth, brawny and in durated tongue, localized, yellow, non-ulcerated nodules on the oral mucosa. Hoarseness of voice, dry mouth, claudication of the jaw, petechiae and ecchymosis of the oral mucosa

  3. HURLER’S SYNDROME : Short and broad mandible, delayed eruption of teeth, multiple radiolucencies in the jawbone, diastema, hyperplastic dental follicles

  4. JAUNDICE : Icterus (diffuse yellow pigmentation) of the palatal and sublingual area

  5. CUSHING SYNDROME : Mooning of the face (face becomes round due to excessive deposition of fat within the facial tissues), osteoporosis of bone, loss of lamina dura , increased risk of infection due to lowered immunity, increased incidence of pathological

  6. HYPOPARATHYROIDISM : Hypocalcemia, tetany, delayed eruption of teeth, pitting enamel hypoplasia, extensive bone resorptions. Positive Chvostek’s sign and persistent oral candidiasis.

  7. HYPERPARATHYROIDISM : Loosening of teeth, brown tumours in the jaws, loss of lamina dura, radiograph shows ground glass appearance of the bone (due to severely decreased bone density) and multicystic jaw lesions, bone and joint pain, peptic ulcer, hypercalcemia, renal calculi.Massive enlargement of jaw.

  8. ACROMEGALY : Increased mandibular growth with development of class III malocclusion, diastemas, anterior open bite , increased soft tissue growth with macroglossia, periodontitis,gingivitis and hypercementosis etc.

  9. PREGNANCY: Gingival bleeding, pregnancy tumor(epulis) Aggravated gingivitis, recurrent aphthous ulcer, vomiting , hypo or hypertension

  10. ADDISON’S DISEASE: Yellow to brown pigmentations of oral mucous membrane due to increased melanin production

  11. CRETINISM : Retarded tooth eruption or complete failure of tooth eruption, delayed exfoliation of deciduous teeth, malocclusion, macroglossia, macrocheilia, drooling of saliva, delayed closure of bony sutures.

  12. MYXOEDEMA : Thick lips, macroglossia and swollen face.

  13. SYPHILIS : Oral chancres in primary syphilis, mucous patches in secondary syphilis, gumma in tertiary syphilis and Hutchinson’s triad in congenital syphilis.

  14. TUBERCULOSIS : Oral tuberculosis ulcer, tuberculous gingivitis and osteomyelitis, scrofula.

  15. CANDIDIASIS : White or grayish white “curdled milk”- like patches on the oral mucosa , which leave raw painful , bleeding surfaces upon their removal.